This study tested the extent to which TOP®, when replicated with fidelity, produced impacts
on sexual risk-taking behaviors in the short term and the longer term.
This is a cluster randomized controlled trial. Teachers were randomized within schools to
the treatment and control conditions. To assess the impact of offering TOP®, students were
surveyed three times: at baseline, before the intervention began for the treatment group; 12
months after baseline (short-term impacts); and 24 months after baseline (long-term
impacts). Baseline data and subsequent follow-up data were collected using a Web-based
survey. Paper surveys were used as back-up for baseline data collection. The pooled survey
data from two school-year cohorts (school years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013) were used to
estimate program impacts using an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Program fidelity and
interview data were used to describe program implementation.TOP® was delivered in middle
schools, high schools, alternative schools, and public charter schools in Hennepin County.
It was implemented during school hours in classes that spanned an entire school year with
the same cohort of students. The subject of the class in which TOP® was placed differed
across schools (for example, social studies, study hall, health).
- Enrolled in a study teacher's class at the time of the baseline survey
- Active parental consent and youth assent
- Inability to complete survey in the languages provided
- Prior participation in TOP