The primary objective of this research is to measure neurochemicals in the activated human
brain during both normoxia (normal oxygen availability) and induced mild hypoxia (reduced
The goal is to determine the effect of mild hypoxia on human brain energy metabolism of
healthy young adult subjects. For this purpose, the Investigator will utilize non-invasive
imaging modalities based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy
(fMRS), while subjects are exposed to well-controlled gas mixtures that resembles conditions
of either normoxia or mild hypoxia. Identifying the impact of mild hypoxia on functional
brain energy metabolism in the healthy human brain is a crucial step for generating
hypotheses in multiple patient populations that experience mild hypoxia as consequence of
their pathological condition, such as in sleep apnea and traumatic brain injury. The
Investigator hypothesize that the energetic demands of neuronal activation as revealed by
fMRS will not be affected by mild hypoxia, despite an altered hemodynamic response observed
- Those volunteers who are evaluated as normal and not met exclusion criteria will be
potential candidates for this study.
- Subjects with any type of bio-implant activated by mechanical, electronic, or
magnetic means (e.g. cochlear implants, pacemakers, neurostimulators, biostimulators,
electronic infusion pumps, etc.).
- Subjects with any type of ferromagnetic bio-implant that could potentially be
displaced or damaged, such as aneurysm clips, metallic skull plates, etc.
- Pregnant females (if questionable doubt, self-test with over the counter pregnancy
- Subjects that exhibit noticeable anxiety and/or claustrophobia.
- Subjects who cannot adhere to the experimental protocol for any reason.
- Subjects who have cardiac or known circulatory impairment, and/or the inability to
perspire (poor thermoregulatory function).
- Subjects who have known conditions which can lead to emergency medical care.
- Been diagnosed by a physician as having a psychiatric disorder, substance abuse,
- Been diagnosed by a physician as having respiratory diseases.
- Had a brain tumor or stroke.
- Started taking chemotherapy or immunomodulatory agents, or had any radiation
treatment that could affect the brain.
- Had two or more seizures, or been given a diagnosis of epilepsy.
- Gotten a non-removable piercing or permanent eyeliner.
- Had a head injury that caused you to lose consciousness for more than 30 minutes or
have amnesia for more than 24 hours.
- Anyone with a history of sleep apnea or head trauma that may have caused Traumatic
Brain Injury (TBI).
- Gotten some type of metal in your body, either from a medical procedure or an injury.
- Male subjects with long beard which wouldn't allow a complete seal between the mask
and the face.
- Anyone who is not able to see long distance without glasses or contacts.