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Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213


Purpose:

Studies have demonstrated nitrite therapy increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in skeletal muscle mitochondria concomitant with reduced whole-body oxygen cost during steady state exercise. Our own work has demonstrated safety and efficacy of an FDA investigational new drug (IND) approved sodium nitrite (10 milligram [mg]) capsule, and its utility to upregulate the sirtuin 3 adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (SIRT3-AMP) pathway of skeletal muscle of younger heart failure (HF) patients. It now seems exceptionally logical and opportune to apply these insights to older HF patients and to delineate mechanisms of disease and aging that respond to nitrite therapy.


Study summary:

Heart failure (HF) is epidemic with aging and prevalence of HF is steadily increasing as the population of older adults expands. Despite the fact that age always stands out as a leading risk factor for HF incidence as well as for poor HF prognosis, few HF trials focus specifically on aging physiology as a key determinant of the disease, and/or on the utility of targeting mechanisms associated with aging as beneficial therapeutic targets. Consistently, HF trials have tended to focus primarily on central mechanisms of cardiac pumping dysfunction despite the fact that HF-outcomes are strongly related to functional decrements that are largely mediated by peripheral manifestations of the disease, and which are particularly interrelated with aging physiology. HF-related skeletal muscle myopathy is a manifestation of HF that diminishes physical function, and which is likely exacerbated by sarcopenia, vascular stiffening, and other aspects of aging such that exercise intolerance is disproportionate among older HF populations as well as its insidious clinical implications. In a pilot investigation, the investigators will study older (age ≥70 years) adults, including patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and age-matched healthy controls, to study benefits of nitrite therapy (in addition to established standards of HF care) to improve physical function. In this pilot analysis the investigators will focus on the utility of daily nitrite supplements to moderate aerobic (maximal and submaximal) and strength (maximal, endurance, and power) indices as well as underlying skeletal muscle mechanisms (skeletal muscle mitochondrial performance, gene expression, and capillarity). Atrophy of type 1 skeletal muscle myocytes is associated with HFrEF and HFpEF. Multiple studies of normal aging have also demonstrated typical atrophy of type 2 skeletal muscle fibers. Consistently, older adults are compromised by cumulative atrophy risks, with studies showing losses of lean body mass as well as intrinsic skeletal muscle weakening, increased interstitial fat, and increased inflammation, with associated functional decrements and fatigue. While aerobic and strength exercise training may be used to modify such HF-related muscle patterns, deconditioning remains pervasive among older HF patients, and efforts to promote exercise interventions are typically confounded by comorbidity (e.g. arthritis, peripheral arterial disease, diabetes, depression), geriatric syndromes (e.g., falls, frailty, incontinence, dementia, poor sleep, malnutrition, auditory and vision impairments), as well as pain, anxiety, and logistic limitations. Even major exercise-training trials that provided strong reinforcements to ensure requisite behavioral changes yielded only poor exercise adherence. There is high conceptual rationale for a therapy that intrinsically improves skeletal muscle performance in HF as a vital means to improve physical function and moderate effects of disease itself as well as to frailties and enfeeblement associated with the disease. This will potentially improve efficacy and quality of care, and also potentially mitigate the skyrocketing costs associated with aggregate HF management. Studies have demonstrated nitrate therapy increases adenosine triphospate (ATP) synthesis in skeletal muscle mitochondria concomitant with reduced whole-body oxygen cost during steady state exercise. Our own work has demonstrated safety and efficacy of an FDA-IND approved sodium nitrite (10 mg) capsule, and its utility to upregulate the SIRT3-AMP pathway of skeletal muscle of younger HF patients. It now seems exceptionally logical and opportune to apply these insights to older HF patients and to delineate mechanisms of disease and aging that respond to nitrite therapy. Overall aims: 1. To demonstrate that oral nitrite pills provide skeletal muscle physiological benefit in old HFrEF and HFpEF patients: - To show that oral supplements are manifest as increased plasma nitrite. - To show that increased plasma nitrite is associated with improved skeletal muscle (mitochondrial respirometry) and platelet (Seahorse XF) metabolism. - To demonstrate that improved metabolism is associated with shifts in skeletal muscle anabolic gene expression (Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 [FNDC5], peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator [PGC1α], Sirtuin 3) as well as reduced catabolic gene expression (ubiquitin, muscle RING-Finger Protein [MuRF], Atrogin1]) and inflammation (Tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin six (IL-6). 2. To demonstrate that improved skeletal physiology achieved using oral nitrate pills is associated with improved clinical indices in old HFrEF and HFpEF patients: - To show that oral nitrite supplements increase efficiency of work, i.e., reduced oxygen uptake (VO2) required for the same work intensity.


Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria: Inclusion Criteria HF Population - New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III for the previous three months despite a minimum of 6 weeks of treatment. Echo criteria will be confirmed as part of the initial study assessment. - Age ≥70 years - HFrEF patients left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% - HFpEF patients LVEF>40%, may include E/E' >8, left atrial size>40 mL/m2 - Optimal therapy according to American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology(ACC) and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSa) HFrEF guidelines, including treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and beta-blocker therapy (for at least 6 weeks), or have documented reason for variation, including medication intolerance, contraindication, patient preference, or personal physician's judgment. - Patients using aspirin (ASA) will be eligible, but asked to hold the medication for 48 hours prior to biopsy. This technique has previously been used with consistent safety. Patients will also be asked to avoid non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) for 48 hours prior to the biopsy. - Patients using anti-thrombin and anti-platelet therapy will plan to modify prior to muscle biopsies individually in coordination with the participant's primary cardiologist. Inclusion Criteria Age-Matched Control Population - Age ≥70 years - Absence of any type of cardiovascular disease. - Absence of diabetes or other chronic disease processes Exclusion Criteria: Exclusion Criteria for All participants - Allergy to lidocaine - Dementia - End-stage malignancy - Orthopedic exercise limitation - Chronic use of oral corticosteroids or other medications that affect muscle function. - Chronic ethyl alcohol (ETOH) or drug dependency. - Any bleeding disorder that would contraindicate biopsy such as history of clinically significant bleeding diathesis (e.g., Hemophilia A or B, Von Willebrand's Disease or congenital Factor VII deficiency). - Psychiatric hospitalization within the last 3 months Exclusion Criteria HF Population - Major cardiovascular event or procedure within the prior 6 weeks. - HF secondary to significant uncorrected primary valvular disease (except mitral regurgitation secondary to left ventricular dysfunction). If valve replacement has been performed, patient may not be enrolled for 12 months after this procedure. - Severe valvular heart disease - Mechanical valve replacement requiring warfarin - Currently taking clopidogrel for a recent stent placement and/or a complex atherosclerotic lesion such that holding clopidogrel creates disproportionate risk. - ICD (Internal cardiodefibrillator) device with heart rate limits that prohibit exercise assessments. Referring physicians will be provided with an opportunity to reprogram devices so that patients can participate.


NCT ID:

NCT02457260


Primary Contact:

Principal Investigator
Daniel Forman, MD
University of Pittsburgh


Backup Contact:

N/A


Location Contact:

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213
United States



There is no listed contact information for this specific location.

Site Status: N/A


Data Source: ClinicalTrials.gov

Date Processed: November 22, 2017

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