Children who are hospitalized are especially vulnerable to the effects of tobacco use and
dependence among their caregivers, and they are more likely to be exposed than children who
are not hospitalized. Hospitalization is an important teachable moment for health care
providers to intervene with tobacco dependent parents, and help them reduce their child's
exposure, potentially improving outcomes after hospitalization, and their future health.
Understanding the best way to approach and intervene with these families will provide the
investigator with the necessary information to create a sustainable intervention that can be
disseminated to hospitals across the country that provide pediatric care, and to ultimately
make a significant improvement in the health of children.
This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine whether the proposed bundled
intervention is superior to usual care in the pediatric inpatient setting can decrease
children's secondhand smoke exposure, and encourage their parents to make smoke-free home
rules and quit smoking, as measured by a validated survey and biomarkers.
We have developed an intervention that bundles the best evidence for tobacco dependence
treatment, including the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) guidelines, and evidence
from parent-specific interventions, to create a sustainable, transferrable intervention
specific to using the inpatient stay to help parents quit smoking and reduce their children's
exposure. The intervention bundle includes screening for exposure, assessing readiness to
quit, providing at least one brief motivational interviewing session in the hospital,
dispensing nicotine replacement therapy if appropriate, providing a smoking
cessation/reduction starter kit and arranging for follow up after the child is discharged.
INSPIRE specific aims:
Aim 1: To assess the efficacy of the intervention in increasing parent report of having
smoke-free homes and cars 6 and 12 months after hospitalization
Aim 2: To demonstrate whether children whose parents receive the intervention bundle have
greater decreases in cotinine levels 6 and 12 months post-hospitalization
Aim 3: To assess the efficacy of the intervention in increasing parent quit rates 6 and 12
months after hospitalization
Aim 4 (Exploratory): To use implementation process measures from the RE-AIM framework to
assess the extent that our intervention results in hospital-wide systems change, including
automatic screening for tobacco smoke exposure and delivery of tobacco control services.
- Families admitted to the inpatient units of Children's Hospital Colorado
- Families with children <17 years of age
- Families with at least one custodial parent smoker
- Admitted in the hospital < 24 hours
- Families with children in foster care
- Families with unclear custody of the child (i.e. children admitted with non-accidental