This study investigates the potential protective effects of altering fatty acid in the
platelet as a method for prevention of platelet activation and thrombosis in type 2 diabetes
mellitus. Fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) and their oxidized lipids will be evaluated for
protection from agonist-mediated platelet activation in platelets from type 2 diabetics and
12-lipoxygenase and essential fatty acids such as omega-3 and omega-6 have been shown to
play important roles in regulating platelet activation, but the underlying mechanisms have
not been fully elucidated as well as their true protection from thrombosis.
12-lipoxygenase inhibition prevents platelet activation in part by inhibiting
12-lipoxygenase oxidation of free fatty acids in the platelet. These oxidized fatty acids
are known to play both a pro- and anti-thrombotic effect on platelets depending on the fatty
acid. oxidation of arachidonic acid by 12-lipoxygenase results in a pro-thrombotic bioactive
lipid whereas oxidation of the omega-6 fatty acid DGLA found in plant oil results in
formation of a potent anti-thrombotic bioactive lipid. Determining the extent of protection
from this and other bioactive lipids produced through 12-lipoxygenase will allow for a
better understanding of which fatty acid supplementation may best protect from thrombosis.
Essential fatty acids such as omega-3 (DHA/EPA) and omega-6 (DGLA) appear to be protective.
However the underlying mechanism for this potential protection is not well understood.
Identifying the mechanism by which these supplements protect from platelet activation may
identify new approaches to preventing thrombotic events in this high risk population.
- Healthy subjects and T2DM patients
- African American and Caucasian
- T2DM patients on controlled medication (taking metformin)
- Dietary supplement within 2 weeks of enrollment
- Fish and plant oil supplements 2 months prior to enrollment
- NSAIDS and aspirin 1 week prior to enrollment
- Cardiovascular event within 6 months prior to enrollment
- Other anti-platelet treatment including phosphodiesterase (PDE) and P2Y12R inhibitors
- Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) below 30 (severe renal insufficiency)
- eGFR above 90