The current study will test the effectiveness of a multi-modal behavioral intervention (the
Oral Health 4 Life program) targeted to smokers who are ready to quit smoking and seeking
services through tobacco quitlines.
The investigators hypothesize that, compared to people in the control arm, participants in
the enhanced intervention will:
1. Be more likely to quit smoking as evidenced by 7 day point prevalent abstinence rates
at 6 month follow-up [primary outcome] and at 2 month follow-up [secondary outcome].
2. Be more likely to see a dental care professional in the past 6 months at 6 month
follow-up [primary outcome] or at least be more likely to have scheduled a future
appointment [secondary outcome].
3. Exhibit more positive change in relevant oral health knowledge/beliefs and attitudes
(e.g., self-efficacy, motivation) that could influence future behavior change.
Smokers (n = 722; 10 pilot participants and 712 main trial participants) will be recruited
when they call to enroll in services with their state-supported tobacco quitline program.
Eligible smokers who provide consent and complete the baseline assessment will be randomized
to either usual care quitline intervention plus attention-matched text messaging or an
enhanced program which integrates standard tobacco cessation counseling with a multi-modal,
behavioral oral health promotion program.
Follow-up assessments will be conducted by phone at 2 and 6 months post-enrollment. In
addition to examing primary and secondary outcomes of interest (focused on tobacco cessation
and utilization of professional dental care), change in potentially relevant intermediate
process measures and the incremental cost of delivering the Oral Health 4 Life program will
- Male or female, aged 18 or older
- Eligible for multi-call services through a participating tobacco quitline managed by
- Can read and speak in English
- Current daily smoker and smokes at least 5 cigarettes a day
- Interested in quitting smoking in next 30 days
- Have some or all natural teeth
- Have not visited a dentist for a checkup or teeth cleaning in the past 6 months and
do not have an appointment scheduled in the next 6 months
- Has a cell phone capable of receiving text messages and provides cell phone number
- Has internet access for personal use
- Willing to talk about ways to improve their oral health
- Provides verbal consent to participate
- Self-report a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, mania, schizophrenia, dementia (e.g.,
has significant cognitive impairment)
- Have lived at the current address less than 6 months or plans to move in the next 6
- Are currently enrolled in an in-patient substance abuse treatment facility or are
- Has a household member already enrolled in the study, based on self-report and/or
mailing address on file