Ketorolac is administered as current practice to the majority of patients undergoing knee
arthroscopy, the appropriate dose of ketorolac to be administered has not been evaluated.
Past studies have examined different doses of ketorolac administered to patients after
spinal fusion surgery and found that 7.5 mg every 6 hours was as effective as 15 or 30 mg
every 6 hours in decreasing postoperative pain and patient opiate consumption. Since
ketorolac side effects such as gastrointestinal and surgical site bleeding seem to be dose
related, utilizing a lower dose of ketorolac may be more efficacious.
Population: Patients scheduled for outpatient knee arthroscopy under general anesthesia
with ASA physical status I-III ages 18-65 years old. All subjects will receive informed
consent. Subjects will not be eligible to participate if they cannot provide informed
consent. Non-English speaking patients will not be included due to the limited time and
availability of translators.
1. Ability to consent and desire to participate in study
2. Outpatient knee arthroscopy with Dr. C. David Geier
3. ASA physical status I-III
4. 18-65 years old
5. Over 50 kg (110 pounds)
6. General anesthesia
1. Any contraindication to receiving a non-steroidal antiinflammatory medication
(including but not limited to allergy to any non-steroidal antiinflammatory
medications including aspirin; chronic renal insufficiency; history of gastric
ulcers, gastritis, peptic ulcers or gastrointestinal bleeding; severe volume
depletion; presence of cerebrovascular bleeding or high risk of bleeding)
2. Allergy to propofol, fentanyl or hydromorphone.
3. Any chronic painful conditions requiring opioid use for over the last 6 months
4. Emergency surgery
5. Altered mental status (not oriented to place, person or time)
6. Pregnant or lactating patients
7. Patient is taking non-steroidal antiinflammatory medications (including aspirin)1 at
home and took that medication on day of surgery.
8. Non-English speaking
9. Patient refusal to study
10. Patient refusal or not a candidate for general anesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway