This study is focused on the pathophysiology underlying the association between exposure to
particulate pollutants and risk for/response to viral infection. The investigators
hypothesize that exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) enhances influenza virus-induced
granulocyte and NK cell activation, via hyaluronic acid-mediated effects on IFNg production.
Oxidant stress and viral replication may also be affected. As an NIH funded ViCTER
project, the purpose of the study is also to test novel assays of granulocyte activation
(Doershuk lab) and lipid mediator activation (Albritton lab) which have not previously been
used in this type of research.
Healthy, nonsmoking adults age 18-40 years will be recruited. This is a randomized, placebo
controlled study comparing NLF granulocyte responses to LAIV administered after either WSP
or clean air, in normal healthy volunteers. Subjects receive either WSP or placebo (clean
air), followed by a standardized dose of LAIV and serial post-infection sampling of nasal
lavage fluids, nasal biopsy and blood
1. Normal lung function, defined as (Knudson 1976/1984 predicted set): FVC > 75 %
predicted for gender, ethnicity, age and height; FEV1 >75 % predicted ; FEV1/FVC
ratio >0.70 and < 0.90.
2. Oxygen saturation of > 94%
3. Normal blood pressure (Systolic between 140 - 90, Diastolic between 90-60 mm Hg)
4. Symptom Score no greater than 6 (out of a possible 39) for total symptom score
5. On the day of a challenge, body temperature must be no greater than 37.8 degrees,
1. A history of significant chronic illnesses (to include diabetes, autoimmune diseases,
immunodeficiency state, known ischemic heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases
such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, hypertension)
2. Positive pregnancy test within 48 hours of the time of challenge
3. Use of any inhaled substance (for medical or recreational purposes). Nonsmokers must
have been abstinent from smoking for the prior 12 months, having not smoked more than
1 pack over the course of the previous year and does not smoke at all 1 week prior to
entrance in the study.
4. Receipt of LAIV in the current season
5. History of allergy to eggs
6. Acute, non-chronic, medical conditions, including (but not limited to) pneumonia or
bronchitis requiring antibiotics, febrile illnesses, flu-like symptoms must be
totally resolved symptomatically for 3 weeks
7. Unspecified illnesses, which in the judgment of the investigator increase the risk
associated with the experimental LAIV infection, will be a basis for exclusion.
8. Expected exposure of subject to immunocompromised individuals (who can be infected by
LAIV) for the 3 weeks following LAIV inoculation