Null hypothesis (HO): There will be no difference in pupillometry readings when using any of
the maintenance anesthetic techniques within subjects.
Alternate hypothesis (HA): Pupillometry readings will be affected by a change in the
Postoperative visual loss resulting from a surgical procedure not performed on the eye is a
devastating outcome for the patient and poorly understood by the medical community. It is
potentially a preventable complication. Diminished blood supply to the optic nerve,
affecting both the anterior or posterior portions of the optic nerve, is the most common
cause of postoperative visual loss. Other, less common causes include occlusion of the
retinal artery and vein, a retinal embolism and cortical blindness. The incidence of
postoperative visual loss increases in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and prone
spine surgery. Although the etiology of post-operative visual loss is unknown, it is
thought to be multifactorial, and several potential risk factors have been identified,
including degree of low blood pressure, preoperative hematocrit, external compression of the
eye, amount of blood loss, prolonged duration of surgical time and increased pressure in the
eye associated with positioning. To date studies have focused on the mechanism associated
with the visual loss. We would like to focus on the feasibility of using a monitor which
may signal loss of visual function intraoperatively.
- Patients between the ages of 18 and 70 years of age who are mentally capable of
providing an informed consent and who are medically classified as ASA 1 or 2.
- Planned elective orthopedic extremity surgery in the supine position with the head in
the neutral position.
- Failure to provide an informed consent
- Known history of eye disease which cannot be corrected with lenses
- Surgery lasting less than 45 minutes