The purpose of this study is to adapt and test the effects of a 4-week behavioral treatment
that targets chronic insomnia (lasting >1 month) in service members returning from Operation
Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF).
Insomnia is one of the most common reasons for referral to mental health services in active
duty personnel. Chronic insomnia often persists post-deployment, contributes to poor mental
and physical health outcomes, and requires targeted interventions. Effective behavioral
treatments of insomnia have not been adapted and tested for the treatment of chronic
insomnia comorbid to combat-related mental disorders and stress reactions. In addition,
effective behavioral insomnia treatments are typically delivered over an 8-week period. This
format may not be easily exportable to primary and community care settings where military
returnees and veterans seek help. The goal of this R34 Exploratory Clinical Research Grant
is to adapt and test the effects of a 4-week behavioral treatment that targets chronic
insomnia (lasting >1 month) in service members returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)
and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and who present with the typical psychiatric
comorbidities associated of combat-related anxiety and mood disorders and stress reactions.
We call this intervention the Brief Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia for Military Veterans
(BBTI-MV). The proposed study includes two phases. Phase I aims at iteratively adapting and
refining a treatment manual for insomnia in OIF/OEF military returnees. Outcomes of interest
include self-report, diary, and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as measures of PTSD,
anxiety, and depression, and perceived physical health.
1. Age is 18 and older.
2. Military returnees from OIF/OEF
3. Meet diagnostic criteria for chronic insomnia as defined by:
- a. Complaint of sleep latency >30 minutes, or wake time after sleep onset >30
minutes, or Sleep Efficiency <85%, or a complaint of non-restorative sleep;
- b. Frequency of insomnia complaint >3 times per week;
- c. Duration of insomnia complaint >1 month
- d. Associated with at least one daytime consequences
4. If using sleep medications, medication and dosage have not been changed in the past
month, and will remain unchanged for the duration of the acute treatment phase of the
study (i.e., 4 weeks)
5. If using other psychotropic medications, medication and dosage have not been changed
in the past 2 months, and will remain unchanged for the duration of the acute
treatment phase of the study (i.e., 4 weeks)
1. Active duty personnel, or reservists/national guards scheduled for re-deployment over
the following eight months
2. Untreated, current, and severe PTSD as determined on the SCID.
3. Untreated, current, and severe Major Depressive Disorder as determined by the
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a score > 30 on the Beck Depression
4. Psychotic or bipolar disorder
5. Current substance or alcohol use disorder as determined by the SCID or by positive
drug toxicology results
6. Unstable medical condition
7. Hospitalization in the previous 2 weeks for a medical condition or surgery for which
recovery overlaps with the study onset and duration
8. Seizure disorder or traumatic brain injury.
9. Current sleep disorders such as nightmare disorder, restless legs syndrome, or
suspected sleep disorder requiring polysomnographic assessment, such as obstructive
sleep apnea or periodic leg movements.
10. Sleep apnea revealed during the screening sleep study.