The purpose of this study is to use transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to determine the
incidence, severity, and clinical significance of gas bubbles during argon plasma
Gas embolism is a rare but serious complication of APC. We will use TEE to monitor for gas
bubbles during APC. APC will be terminated if gas bubbles are associated with ischemic heart
rhythms, wall motion abnormalities, or if large gas bubbles are noted in the left ventricle.
- Adults (male and female) 18 years of age or older
- Clinical indication for bronchoscopy (hemoptysis, airway obstruction, tumor excision,
granulation tissue that is impairing endobronchial stent performance)
- Ability of the patient or proxy to read, comprehend, and sign informed consent
- Presence of esophageal disorders that may complicate transesophageal echocardiography
(strictures, varices, fistula, prior esophageal surgery)
- Presence of coagulopathy or other bleeding diathesis
- Inability to tolerate brief periods of apnea
- Presence of pulmonary vascular disease
- Pregnant women will not be included in this study because the potential fetal
hypoxemia is not an acceptable risk.
- No exclusions will be made based on gender or race.