In order to survive, brain tumors must have a network of blood vessels to supply it with
oxygen and nutrients. The tumors produce substances that enable new blood vessels to form.
Tandutinib and Bevacizumab are experimental drugs that may prevent new blood vessel
formation and thereby slow or stop tumor growth in the brain.
To determine the safety and side effects of Tandutinib in combination with Bevacizumab in
patients with brain tumors.
To evaluate the response of brain tumors to treatment with Tandutinib and Bevacizumab.
Patients 18 years of age and older with a malignant brain tumor for whom standard treatments
(surgery, radiation and chemotherapy) are no longer effective.
Patients receive treatment in 4-week cycles as follows: Tandutinib by mouth twice a day
every day and intravenous (through a vein) infusions of Bevacizumab over 90 minutes (or less
if well tolerated) every 2 weeks. Treatment may continue for up to 1 year, and possibly
longer, as long as there are no signs of tumor growth or serious treatment side effects.
Patients are evaluated with MRI, CT and PET scans before starting treatment and then
periodically to determine the response to treatment.
Patients have physical and neurological examinations every 4 weeks and blood tests every 2
weeks. They complete quality of life questionnaires every 4 weeks....
Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against vascular- endothelial growth factor
(VEGF), the major angiogenesis factor involved in high-grade glioma-mediated angiogenesis.
Preclinical studies in our laboratory and others have shown potent antiglioma activity in
vivo and early clinical trials of bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan and alone (NIH
study) have demonstrated significant anti-vascular permeability and anti-glioma effects in
patients with recurrent gliomas.
Tandutinib (MLN518) along with bevacizumab represents an attempt to further capitalize on
the concept of targeting the tumor vasculature. Tandutinib is a small molecule inhibitor of
FLT3, PDGFR, and cKIT (type III receptor tyrosine kinases). It has demonstrated
anti-leukemic activity in patients with relapsed and refractory AML whose blasts contain an
activating internal tandem duplication mutation of FLT3. However, in this study tandutinub
is being added to bevacizumab primarily for its activity against the PDGFR and cKIT.
Hannahan and colleagues have demonstrated the additional anti-tumor activity that results in
vivo with combined inhibition of the VEGFR and PDGFR. The activity of PDGFR inhibition is
hypothesized to result from its effect on pericytes, the cells that surround and support
endothelial cells. These cells have abundant expression of PDGFR and require PDGF-PDGFR
interaction for their normal function.
To establish data regarding the anti-tumor activity of the combination of bevacizumab and
tandutinib in patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas, as determined by
Patients with histologically proven recurrent malignant glioma are eligible for this study.
Patients will receive tandutinib as a single agent at a daily dose of 500 mg PO bid for the
first 14 days of treatment. Radiology: Prior to the first dose of tandutinib patients will
undergo an MRI-perfusion scan and an FDG-PET scan. An MRI-perfusion scan will then be
repeated between days 12-14 of the first 14 days of tandutinib monotherapy. On day 15,
treatment with bevacizumab will be added to the ongoing treatment with tandutinib.
Bevacizumab will be given intravenously in a dose of 10 mg/kg, repeated once every 2 weeks.
After completion of the first 4 weeks of combined tandutinib and bevacizumab therapy (6
weeks after initiating treatment with tandutinib) considered the first cycle of therapy) the
MRI-perfusion and FDG-PET scans will be repeated before the next dose of bevacizumab is
given. Patients who are clinically/neurologically stable, and who have radiographically
stable or responding disease at the end of that first cycle and every cycle thereafter
(every 4 weeks), will continue treatment with tandutinib and bevacizumab. MRI-perfusion
scans will be repeated after the completion of every 4 weeks of therapy. A total of 80
patients will be enrolled to this study (GBM=40, AG=40)
- INCLUSION CRITERIA:
Patients with histologically proven intracranial malignant glioma will be eligible for
this protocol. Malignant glioma includes glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), gliosarcoma,
anaplastic astrocytoma (AA), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), anaplastic mixed
oligoastrocytoma (AMO), or malignant astrocytoma NOS (not otherwise specified).
Patients must have evidence for tumor progression by MRI or CT scan. This scan should be
performed within 14 days prior to registration and on a fixed dose of steroids for at
least 5 days. If the steroid dose is increased between the date of imaging and
registration a new baseline MRI/CT is required. The same type of scan, i.e. MRI or CT must
be used throughout the period of protocol treatment for tumor measurement.
Patients having undergone recent resection of recurrent or progressive tumor will be
eligible as long as all of the following conditions apply:
They have recovered from the effects of surgery.
Residual disease following resection of recurrent tumor is not mandated for eligibility
into the study. To best assess the extent of residual disease post-operatively, a CT/ MRI
should be done:
- no later than 96 hours in the immediate post-operative period or
- at least 4 weeks post-operatively, and
- within 14 days of registration, and
- on a steroid dosage that has been stable for at least 5 days.
If the 96 hour scan is more than 21 days before registration, the scan needs to be
repeated. If the steroid dose is increased between the date of imaging and registration, a
new baseline MRI/CT is required on a stable steroid dosage for at least 5 days.
Patients must have progressed after radiation therapy and must have an interval of greater
than or equal to 4 weeks from the completion of radiation therapy to study entry.
All patients or their previously designated DPA (if the patient is deemed by the treating
physician to be impaired or questionably impaired in such a way that the ability of the
patient to give informed consent is questionable) must sign an informed consent indicating
that they are aware of the investigational nature of this study.
Patients must be greater than or equal to 18 years old, and with a life expectancy greater
than 8 weeks.
Patients must have a Karnofsky performance status of greater than or equal to 60.
Patients must have recovered from the toxic effects of prior therapy: 2 weeks from any
investigational agent, 4 weeks from prior cytotoxic therapy, two weeks from vincristine, 6
weeks from nitrosoureas, 3 weeks from procarbazine administration, and 1 week for
non-cytotoxic agents, e.g., interferon, tamoxifen, thalidomide, cis-retinoic acid, etc.
(radiosensitizer does not count). Any questions related to the definition of non-cytotoxic
agents should be directed to the Study Chair.
Patients must have adequate bone marrow function (WBC greater than or equal to
3,000/microl, ANC greater than or equal to 1,500/mm3, platelet count of greater than or
equal to 100,000/mm(3), and hemoglobin greater than or equal to 10 gm/dl), adequate liver
function (SGOT and bilirubin less than 2 times ULN), and adequate renal function
(creatinine less than 1.5 mg/dL and/or creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 60
cc/min) before starting therapy. Serum sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium
must be in normal limits. These tests must be performed within 14 days prior to
registration. Eligibility level for hemoglobin may be reached by transfusion.
Patients must not have any significant medical illnesses that, in the investigator's
opinion, cannot be adequately controlled with appropriate therapy or would compromise the
patients' ability to tolerate this therapy
This study was designed to include women and minorities, but was not designed to measure
differences of intervention effects. Males and females will be recruited with no
preference to gender. No exclusion to this study will be based on race. Minorities will
actively be recruited to participate.
Creatinine clearance or calculated creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 60
Patients must practice adequate contraception.
Head CT Scan without contrast (to rule out significant acute hemorrhage) within 7 days
prior to starting treatment.
A 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to be performed within 2 weeks of trial entry with QTc
less than 460 msec.
Patients who, in the view of the treating physician, have significant active cardiac,
hepatic, renal, or psychiatric diseases are ineligible.
No concurrent use of other standard chemotherapeutics or investigative agents.
Patients known to have a malignancy that has required treatment in the last 12 months
and/or is expected to require treatment in the next 12 months (except non-melanoma skin
cancer or carcinoma in-situ in the cervix).
Patients who have an active infection.
Pregnant (positive pregnancy test) or nursing women. Fertile men and women must agree to
use adequate contraceptive measures during study therapy and for at least 6 months after
the completion of tandutinib plus bevacizumab therapy.
Patients who have any disease that will obscure toxicity (i.e. vasculitis, congenital
hypercoagubility syndromes, uncontrolled primary hypertension, idiopathic
Evidence of significant recent hemorrhage on mandatory CT scan (defined as 1 cm or more of
acute blood) of the brain within 7 days of patient accrual with the following exceptions:
resolving hemorrhagic changes related to surgery, and/or presence of punctate hemorrhages
in the tumor.
Concurrent anti-coagulation or anti-platelet medication (including aspirin, non-steroidal
anti-inflammatories, COX-2 inhibitors).
Serious or non-healing wound, ulcer or bone fracture.
Proteinuria at screening as demonstrated by either:
- Urine protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio greater than or equal to 1.0 at screening OR
- Urine dipstick for proteinuria greater than or equal to 2+ (patients discovered to
have greater than or equal to 2+ proteinuria on dipstick urinalysis at baseline
should undergo a 24 hour urine collection and must demonstrate less than or equal to
1g of protein in 24 hours to be eligible).
History of abdominal fistula, gastrointestinal perforation or intra-abdominal abscess
within 6 months
Invasive procedures defined as follows:
- Major surgical procedure, open biopsy or significant traumatic injury within 28 days
prior to Day 1 therapy
- Anticipation of need for major surgical procedures during the course of the study
- Core biopsy within 7 days prior to D1 therapy
- Patients with clinically significant cardiovascular disease
- History of CVA or transient ischemic attack within 6 months
- Inadequately controlled hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure greater than
160 and/or diastolic blood pressure greater than 100 mmHg on antihypertensive
- Any prior history of hypertensive crisis or hypertensive encephalopathy
- Myocardial infarction or unstable angina within 6 months
- New York Heart Association Grade II or greater congestive heart failure
- Serious cardiac arrhythmia requiring medication
- Unstable angina pectoris
- Symptomatic peripheral vascular disease
Evidence of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy
PT/PTT greater than1.5 time the upper limit of normal
Patients with known hypersensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary cell products or other
recombinant human antibodies
Inability to take oral medication
Known gastrointestinal disease or history of gastrointestinal surgery that could interfere
with the absorption of orally administered medication.
Active cardiac disease as defined by:
- Significant cardiac event (including symptomatic heart failure or evidence of cardiac
ischemia within 3 months of first dose or presence of any cardiac disease that in the
opinion of the Investigator increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmia.
- Clinically significant arrhythmia (multifocal premature ventricular contraction
[PVC], bigeminy, trigeminy, ventricular tachycardia, bradycardia) that is symptomatic
or requires treatment (CTCAE grade 3), or asymptomatic sustained ventricular
- Previous history of QTc prolongation with other medication.
- Congenital long QT syndrome
- QTc with Bazett's correction that is unmeasurable, or greater than or equal to 460
msec on screening ECG. If a patient has QTc greater than or equal to 460 msec on
screening ECG, a second screen ECG may be repeated at least 24 hours apart. The
average QTc from the 2 screening ECGs must be less than 460 msec in order for the
patient to be eligible for the study. If the patient meets eligibility requirements
in this way, the 'baseline' QTc for this patient will be the average of the 3 ECGs
(screen 1, screen 2, and pre- 1 first dose).
- Previous history of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 45 percent as
measured by multi-gated acquisition scan (MUGA) or by echocardiogram (ECHO) for
patients with previous anthracycline therapy (total dose greater than 450 mg/m(2) or
significant cardiovascular disease or chest irradiation, as determined by the
- A cardiac arrhythmia serious enough to require therapy (i.e. drugs, AID), angina,
symptomatic congestive heart failure and/or a cardiac ejection fraction less than 45
- Prior serious cardiac disease defined as prior coronary bypass surgery, angioplasty,
or prior myocardial infarction unless a recent cardiac evaluation (within the last 3
months) demonstrated no significant coronary artery disease (i.e. a negative stress
test) and no myocardial wall dysfunction.
- Concurrent use of other standard chemotherapeutics or investigative agents or
vasoconstrictors for the treatment of migraine (ergotamine, zolmitriptan,
sumatriptan) because of the potential for exacerbation of coronary vasoconstriction.
Known or suspected primary muscular or neuromuscular disease (e.g. muscular dystrophy,
myasthenia gravis). This does not include steroid myopathy.
Prior treatment with bevacizumab is not permitted.
Concurrent use of other drugs that have been shown to potentially prolong the QTc