The purpose of this study is to determine whether a protein called TREM-1 can be used to
differentiate viral and bacterial pneumonias in children who are on ventilator support. We
propose that the level of TREM-1 will be significantly elevated in the lung fluid of
children with bacterial pneumonia and viral with co-existing bacterial pneumonia than in
children with pure viral pneumonia.
Most often, viruses are the cause of pneumonia in children. However, viral pneumonias are
frequently associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia. It is important, though difficult,
to differentiate patients who only have viral pneumonia from those who have viral pneumonia
with secondary bacterial pneumonia. This will help physicians to prescribe antibiotics to
only those with bacterial pneumonia and avoid antibiotic use in those with pure viral
pneumonia, thus help to limit health-care cost and to decrease emergence of antibiotic
resistance. In adult studies, TREM-1 has been shown to be specifically expressed in
We propose that measuring TREM-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid will help to
differentiate these groups. Our hypothesis is that concentration of TREM-1 will be
significantly elevated in the BAL fluid of children with bacterial pneumonia and viral with
co-existing bacterial pneumonia than in children with pure viral pneumonia.
- Children from birth to 18 years intubated for respiratory failure or for surgery as
mentioned above within 48 hours of intubation.
- Use of antibiotics >72 hours preceding the study (not applicable to the definite
bacterial pneumonia group)
- Use of oral/parenteral glucocorticoid therapy <2 weeks prior to admission
- Presence of tracheostomy
- Active treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension
- Mechanical ventilation with FIO2 >0.6, MAP>20
- Presence of severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema, pneumothorax, bradycardia (heart
rate, <80 beats/min in neonates, <70 beats/min in infants), hypotension (mean
arterial pressure, <40 mm Hg in neonates, <50 mm Hg in infants), and platelet count
- Immunodeficient or immunocompromised due to other conditions.
- Enrollment in another interventional study that employs BAL.