We believe that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) will help subjects with
Osteopetrosis generate functioning osteoclasts, and by so doing assist in the resolution of
the abnormal bone architecture, and the anemia and bone marrow failure that is also
characteristic of this disease. However, we have found in past studies that approximately 30%
of Osteopetrosis patients do not engraft. Therefore, in this study, we plan to use a
different combination of pre-transplant drugs to try to make transplants safer for this
disease, as well as to provide a second infusion of stem cells in patients with matched
related or unrelated donors. The purpose of this research is to find a safer and more
effective means of performing stem cell transplantation in patients with Osteopetrosis, using
chemotherapy and radiation designed to bring about engraftment and lessen transplant
This transplant protocol will test the following: 1) the ability to achieve engraftment with
the reduced intensity protocol, 2) the mortality associated with transplant by day 100, 3)
patient outcomes, based on differential imaging and biologic evaluations prior to
transplantation and at designated points after transplantation (day 100, 6 months, 1, 2 and 5
years). Additional biologic studies will include microarray analysis, Campath levels just
prior to the administration of the graft, and establishment of mesenchymal stem cell lines.
In older patients, studies to evaluation osteoclast differentiation and function will also be
- Patients eligible for transplantation under this protocol will be <45 years of age,
and will be diagnosed with severe osteopetrosis. This will be defined as having the
following manifestations of the disease.
- Bones that are uniformly markedly dense based on skeletal survey
- No history that would suggest autosomal dominant inheritance
- Evidence of hematologic changes that are attributed to the underlying disease,
including the need for ongoing transfusions, OR
- the presence of progressive anemia or thrombocytopenia, OR a white blood cell
differential with a predominance of immature forms and evidence of extramedullary
- persistence of serious infectious complications that are thought to be due to the
abnormal architecture of the bone that are resistant to surgical and medical
- Patients >45 years of age
- Evidence of hepatic failure
- pulmonary dysfunction sufficient to substantially increase the risk of transplant
- Renal dysfunction with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <30% of predicted.
- Cardiac compromise sufficient to substantially increase the risk of transplantation
- Severe, stable neurologic impairment.
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity.
- Pregnant or lactating females