This is a prospective randomized cohort study of obstetric patients from Paley clinic at
AEMC and from other affiliated obstetric clinics.
This study will try to determine if active management of risks in pregnancy at term by
inducing patients will not decrease the cesarean delivery rate or change neonatal outcomes.
The outcomes that will be measured include cesarean delivery rate, meconium, Apgar scores
and admissions to the NICU.
The study will include patients who have their prenatal care at the Paley clinic in AEMC,
where the residents provide the prenatal care with supervision of OBGYN attending
physicians, or at other affiliated clinics that are staffed by care givers from our OBGYN
Patients at our obstetric clinics are scheduled for weekly visits starting at 36 weeks. At
36 to 37 weeks of gestation, or earlier, each patient will be offered to participate in the
study. Those who refuse will continue to have the standard care and will not be considered
as part of the study. Those who wish to participate in the study will be consented and will
then be randomly assigned to the control group or to the AMOR-IPAT group with a ratio of
Risk factors will be identified for each patient participating in the study at the
gestational age of 36 to 37 weeks (using the digichart system, the medical records and
questioners) and the upper limit of the optimal time of delivery will be calculated for each
patient, according to the method used by the UPenn group, with the time always being at
least 38 weeks and no more then 41 weeks.
Patients from the AMOR-IPAT group will be scheduled for induction of labor on the morning of
the day of the calculated upper limit (plus or minus 2 days).
To try and eliminate biases, a uniform method of induction will be applied to all the
patients participating in the study, no matter the group or the reason for the induction.
The induction will be performed with misoprostol 25mcg intravaginally every four hours (to a
maximum of three doses) for a Bishop score of 4 or less and as long as there is no
tachysystole which will be defined as six or more uterine contractions in ten minutes in
consecutive ten minute intervals. The misoprostol will be followed by a foley bulb inflated
with 80 cc of fluid if the cervix is still not favorable after three doses or when
tachysystole develops. Once the cervix is favorable induction will be continued with high
dose oxytocin (starting dose of six milliunits with increments of four milliunits every
thirty minutes), which is associated with less cesarean deliveries for dystocia than the low
Anesthesia will be applied according to the patient's wish, without limiting epidural
anesthesia to a certain degree of dilatation.
After delivery information will be collected from the charts and the two groups will be
compared regarding the incidence of cesarean deliveries, but also regarding intrapartum
variables and major outcomes.
The Student t test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test will be used to compare continuous
demographic characteristics, past medical and surgical historic features and obstetric risk
factors that will be present in the two study groups. Universal chi squared tests will be
used to compare levels of various dichotomous variables.
Statistical significance is defined as a probability value of less than 0.05. Using a power
analysis and by assuming a cesarean delivery rate of 20% in the control group and a change
of 13% (as shown in the original study) we will need 191 patients in the control group and
96 in the study group.
All data will be collected by staff of the OBGYN department and maintained on departmental
secured password limited database. Obstetrical prenatal data is maintained on HIPPA
compliant password protected electronic medical records.
- patients with singleton pregnancies
- at least one prenatal visit at one of our clinics
- an ultrasonogram confirming the dates within the first 22 weeks
- no maternal or fetal problems before 37 weeks and 5 days of gestation that mandated
- a delivery before 37 weeks and 5 days of gestation
- a previous cesarean delivery (one or more)
- a history of any other uterine surgeries that are a contraindication for a vaginal