This 18-week, randomized, double blind clinical trial provided treatment for 160
cocaine-dependent opioid addicts, aged 18-65 years. Participants were stabilized on LAAM
maintenance during the first 4 weeks and cocaine use was assessed; participants were then
stratified by level of cocaine use and randomly assigned to receive one of the following:
placebo disulfiram (0 mg/day), disulfiram at 62.5 mg/day, disulfiram at 125 mg/day, or
disulfiram at 250 mg/day. During induction onto LAAM, participants were administered
increasing doses of LAAM plus placebo disulfiram on a thrice-weekly basis until maintenance
doses of LAAM are attained. At the beginning of week 5, participants received LAAM plus
disulfiram or placebo disulfiram according to their randomized assignments, and were
maintained on these agents through week 16. At the end of the study, participants underwent
detoxification from LAAM and active/placebo medication over a 4- to 6-week period. All
participants received weekly 1-hour psychotherapy (Cognitive Behavioral Treatment) with
experienced clinicians specifically trained to deliver the therapy and who received ongoing
supervision. The primary outcomes were retention and reduction in opioid and cocaine use, as
assessed by self-report and confirmed by thrice-weekly urinalyses. Secondary outcomes
included reductions in other illicit drug and alcohol use, as well as improvements in
- Between the ages of 18-65 years.
- Are not currently enrolled in treatment.
- Participants must demonstrate opioid dependence, as evidenced by documentation of
prior opioid agonist maintenance and/or have signs of withdrawal upon administration
of naloxone (<0.8 mg, i.m.), and an opioid-positive urine screen.
- Participants also must be current users of cocaine with self-reported use of > 7 gm
during the preceding 12 months, self-reported use of > 1 time/week in at least one
month preceding study entry, and cocaine-positive urine screen.
- Participants must fulfill DSM-IV criteria for opioid and cocaine dependence.
- current diagnosis of other drug or alcohol physical dependence (other than opiates,
cocaine or tobacco)
- significant medical conditions such as abnormal liver function (with laboratory
findings greater than three times normal).
- active hepatitis; hypertension; a current cardiac condition or high risk of
cardiovascular disease; seizure disorders; or another significant underlying medical
condition which would contraindicate disulfiram or LAAM treatment.
- meets DSM-IV psychiatric classifications for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or
other psychotic disorders; exhibiting current suicidality or homicidality; current
use of a prescribed psychotropic medication that cannot be discontinued.