The purpose of this study is to look at the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in
normal control individuals and in patients with controlled diabetes.
Cardiovascular disease remains the greatest cause of mortality in people with diabetes
mellitus. This observation study will evaluate non-traditional risk factors for their
contributions to vascular disease progression as determined by carotid intima media
thickness and history of vascular disease events over 1 year. This study requires annual
checks of blood, urine, history, and carotid ultrasound for carotid intimal medical
- 19 years old or more and willing to return for annual testing for 2 years.
- Those with Diabetes need to have the condition for at least 5 years.
- Normal controls need to have no diabetes, kidney disease, or chronic disease.
- Estimated GFR <60 (mL/min/1.73m2)
- Any condition that would change weight dramatically in the near future such as
malabsorption, pregnancy, malignancy
- For Normal: BMI>30, BP > 140/90 , LDL > 130.
- For Diabetes: BP> 135/85, A1C> 8%. LDL > 100.