Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been approved for control of blood pressure in adults, yet
there are no controlled studies in children. The purpose of this study is to determine the
efficacy and safety of sodium nitroprusside in children who will be having surgery, and who
require blood pressure lowering in order to decrease the amount of blood loss during their
The trial is a multicenter randomized, double-blind, parallel group, dose-ranging,
effect-controlled study examining the effects of sodium nitroprusside in pediatric subjects
requiring relative hypotension during a surgical or medical procedure. The goal is to
establish the starting and maximum infusion rates that afford optimum blood pressure control
in children and a safe dosing regimen in children. The objective is to describe the
relationship between the infusion rate of nitroprusside and changes in blood pressure.
The specific aims of this trial are:
1. To define the onset and offset of blood pressure lowering effects of nitroprusside to
obtain adequate instructions for dose titration in the pediatric population.
2. To construct a dose-response model that defines the relationship between nitroprusside
infusion rate and changes in blood pressure in pediatric subjects.
3. To assess the safety of nitroprusside administration in pediatric subjects requiring
controlled reduction of blood pressure.
Study subjects must meet all of the following criteria:
- Subject is less than 17 years of age
- Neonates must be full-term gestation and have a body weight of at least 2.5 kg
- Subject requires pharmacologically-induced hypotension for acute blood pressure
management for surgery or other invasive procedure, e.g., cerebral artery
- Duration of the subject's controlled hypotension is expected to be ≥ 2 hours
- Subject requires general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation
- Subject requires placement of intra-arterial line during the surgical or medical
- The subject's parent or legal guardian gives permission (informed consent) and
subject gives assent when appropriate.
Subjects will be excluded if any of the following criteria exist:
- Subject has a known allergy to SNP
- Subject has a known mitochondrial cytopathy with a disorder of oxidative
phosphorylation or of respiratory chain enzymes
- Subject has a contraindication to vasodilator therapy for control of blood pressure
during surgery or procedures
- Subject has participated in other clinical trials for investigational drugs and/or
devices within 30 days prior to enrollment
- Subject has any serious medical condition which, in the opinion of the investigator,
is likely to interfere with study procedures
- Subject is moribund (death likely to occur within 48 hours)
- Subject has a positive result for the urine or serum human chorionic gonadotropin
(HCG) test administered at screening.