This study will examine the effects of certain investigational anti-cancer drugs on the
genetic and protein makeup of cells. The findings will be entered into a database that may
be used to: 1) determine the optimal dose of drug that will provide the most benefit with
the least harmful side effects; and 2) predict which patients will have a greater chance of
developing side effects or a greater chance of benefiting from the drug.
Patients 18 years of age and older who are receiving the anti-cancer drugs flavopiridol or
perifosine in an NIH clinical trial may be eligible for this study.
Participants will undergo the following procedures both before starting treatment and during
the first treatment cycle to look for genetic or chemical changes produced in response to
the study drug:
- Blood draws.
- Buccal cell brushings: Collection of buccal cells (cells lining the inside of the
cheeks) from the inside of the cheeks using a soft bristle brush for a few seconds
several times. The patient then rinses the mouth with salt water for 1 minute and then
spits into a cup.
- Buccal cell biopsies (on both sides of the mouth): For this procedure, a local
anesthetic is given to numb the biopsy area. Then, a small piece of tissue from the
inner lining of the mouth is removed with a small sharp cookie-cutter instrument. The
biopsy findings will be compared with those of the cheek brushings to see if the
information is similar.
- Tumor biopsies: In patients whose tumor is easily accessible, such as the skin
abdominal fluid, tissue biopsies will be requested. Depending on the type and location
of the tumor, the biopsy may be done with a forceps, a large needle (needle biopsy), a
cookie-cutter instrument (punch biopsy), or a small knife (excisional biopsy). All of
these procedures are done with a local anesthetic.
A significant problem in drug development of novel small molecules is the lack of available
tissues (surrogate tissues) that allow for the assessment of the molecular and biochemical
effects of (targeted-therapies) drug action. The information obtained from surrogate
tissues might help us validate previous preclinical studies with those agents and also dose
them in a more rational way. Oral keratinocytes, which are accessible by non-invasive
means, might be useful to assess drug action. The proposed study seeks to investigate the
genetic, molecular, and biochemical effects of novel agents in oral buccal mucosal cells.
Patients already enrolled in Phase I and II clinical trials for neoplastic diseases at the
Clinical Center will undergo oral cytobrushing before and during therapy to determine the
molecular and biochemical effects of novel agents in the oral mucosa cells. Similar studies
will be performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In order to validate to compare
and compare the oral cytobrush methodology, some of these subjects will undergo oral punch
biopsy studies. Some of these subjects will also undergo tumor biopsy, if accessible or
Patients (male, female, greater than or equal to age 18 years) enrolled in a clinical
trial at the Clinical Center receiving novel small molecules that modulate cell cycle
progression for the prevention and treatment of neoplastic diseases.
Able to sign informed consent.
Patient's primary NIH physician should agree with appropriateness of patient's
participation in the study.
Patients unable to undergo cytobrushing (significant mucositis).
Patients unable to provide baseline samples (patients already receiving therapy).
Exclusion for biopsy only: patients with significant bleeding diathesis, receiving active
anticoagulation or with platelets less than 10K.
Cognitively impaired subjects will be excluded from this trial.