This study will examine how the brain operates during execution and control of voluntary
movement and what goes wrong with these processes in disease. It will use
electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) to compare brain function in normal
subjects and in patients with focal hand dystonia. In dystonia, involuntary muscle
movements, or spasms, cause uncontrolled twisting and repetitive movement or abnormal
postures. Focal dystonia involves just one region of the body, such as the hand, neck or
EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain. The activity is recorded using wire
electrodes attached to the scalp or mounted on a Lycra cap placed on the head. EMG measures
electrical activity from muscles. It uses wire electrodes placed on the skin over the
Adult healthy normal volunteers and patients with focal hand dystonia may be eligible for
this study. Patients will be selected from NINDS's dystonia patient database.
Participants will sit in a semi-reclining chair in a darkened room and be asked to move
either their right index finger, right foot, or the angle of their mouth on the right side
at a rate of one movement every 10 seconds. Brain and muscle activity will be measured
during this task with EEG and EMG recordings.
- To find and quantify EEG/MEG correlates of cortical center-surround organization and
- To compare these between healthy volunteers and focal hand dystonia (FHD) patients.
- Healthy volunteers and FHD patients.
- The study has two separate arms aiming to examine the same question. In the first one
subjects perform a 4-choice contingence negative variation (CNT) type motor task while
multi-channel EEG and EMG are recorded. In the second arm somatosensory evoked potentials
(SEPs) or fields (SEFs) are recorded to median nerve stimulation.
- First arm: EEG band-power difference between "center" and "surround". Second arm: number,
amplitude, and power of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) component of SEPs/SEFs.
- INCLUSION CRITERIA:
The study population will consist of (a) healthy volunteers; and (b) patients with focal
Healthy subjects: Healthy volunteers who consented to participate in the study.
Patients diagnosed with focal hand dystonia: unilateral focal hand dystonia from our
dystonia patient database who consented to participate in the study.
Healthy subjects: abnormal neurological exam or history of past neurological disease.
Dystonia patients: the presence of a second neurological disease or condition; abnormal
neurological findings on exam that are not related to their focal hand dystonia.
For MRI studies, patients with metallic implants will be excluded to remove potential
risks from this procedure.
For MRI purposes, women who are pregnant are excluded from this part of the protocol.
Therefore, all women of childbearing potential will have a pregnancy test performed prior
to prospective MRI studies, which must be negative, before proceeding.
For TMS studies, healthy volunteers or focal hand dystonia patients who have a pacemaker,
an implanted medical pump, a metal plate or metal object in the skull or eye (for example,
after brain surgery), or who have a history of seizure disorder will be excluded from the