RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing
so they stop growing or die. Combining more than one drug and giving them in different ways
may kill more tumor cells. It is not yet known which chemotherapy regimen is most effective
for colorectal cancer that has spread to the liver.
PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy
with or without isolated hepatic perfusion with melphalan in treating patients who have
colorectal cancer that has spread to the liver.
- Compare the disease-free and overall survival of patients with unresectable colorectal
cancer metastatic to the liver treated with regional and systemic chemotherapy with or
without isolated hepatic perfusion with melphalan.
- Compare the response rate and duration of response in patients treated with these
- Compare the patterns of recurrence (liver vs systemic) in patients treated with these
- Compare the health-related quality of life (QOL) of patients treated with these
- Determine whether baseline QOL correlates with length of survival of patients treated
with these regimens.
OUTLINE: This is a randomized study. Patients are stratified according to prior chemotherapy
for liver metastasis (yes vs no) and percentage of hepatic replacement (less than 25% vs at
least 25%). All patients undergo laparotomy to determine final eligibility. Eligible
patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms.
- Arm I: Patients undergo hyperthermic isolated hepatic perfusion with melphalan over 60
minutes. Patients then undergo placement of an intrahepatic pump or port. At 6 weeks
post hepatic perfusion, patients receive systemic chemotherapy comprising irinotecan IV
over 90 minutes on day 1 followed by fluorouracil IV over 15 minutes and leucovorin
calcium (CF) IV over 15 minutes on days 1-3. Patients receive local chemotherapy
comprising floxuridine (FUDR) and CF by hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) continuously on
- Arm II: Patients undergo placement of an intrahepatic pump or port at laparotomy. At 7
days post laparotomy, patients receive FUDR and CF by HAI continuously for 14 days.
Beginning 2 weeks after completion of HAI, patients receive systemic and local
chemotherapy as in arm I.
Treatment with combined systemic and local chemotherapy repeats every 35 days for a maximum
of 6 courses. Treatment with local chemotherapy alone repeats every 28 days for a maximum of
6 additional courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Quality of life is assessed at baseline, postoperatively, every third course of
chemotherapy, every 3 months for 2 years, and then every 6 months thereafter.
Patients are followed every 3 months for 2 years and then every 6 months thereafter.
PROJECTED ACCRUAL: A total of 168 patients (84 per treatment arm) will be accrued for this
study within 54 months.
- Histologically or cytologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer of the
parenchyma of the liver
- No evidence of extrahepatic disease (limited resectable extrahepatic disease
- Unresectable liver metastasis, as defined by the following:
- More than 3 sites of disease
- Bilobar disease
- Tumor abutting major vascular or ductal structures
- Measurable disease
- No biopsy-proven cirrhosis or evidence of significant portal hypertension manifested
by ascites, esophageal varices, or collateral vessels around organs drained by the
portal venous system
- 18 and over
- ECOG 0-2
- Not specified
- Platelet count greater than 100,000/mm^3
- Hematocrit greater than 27.0%
- WBC greater than 3,000/mm^3
- Bilirubin less than 2.0 mg/dL
- PT no greater than 2 seconds over upper limit of normal
- Elevations in transaminases secondary to metastatic disease allowed
- No veno-occlusive disease
- No active chronic hepatitis
- Hepatitis B or C allowed provided there is no evidence of cirrhosis
- Creatinine no greater than 1.5 mg/dL OR
- Creatinine clearance greater than 60 mL/min
- No ischemic cardiac disease
- No prior congestive heart failure with LVEF less than 40%
- No chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other chronic pulmonary disease with
pulmonary function test less than 50% of predicted
- No active infections
- Not pregnant or nursing
- Negative pregnancy test
- Weight greater than 30 kg
PRIOR CONCURRENT THERAPY:
- At least 4 weeks since prior biologic therapy for disease and recovered
- At least 4 weeks since prior chemotherapy for disease and recovered
- No prior intrahepatic artery infusion therapy with floxuridine
- Not specified
- At least 4 weeks since prior radiotherapy for disease and recovered
- Not specified
- No concurrent immunosuppressive drugs
- No concurrent chronic anticoagulants