The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a family-centered,
community-based, self-management intervention (Self-Management Therapy) for adolescents with
schizophrenia. The study will test the intervention's effectiveness in improving the
adolescents' behavior, thinking, mood, and use of substances such as drugs and alcohol. The
study also will look at the effects of the patient on the family.
The intervention involves training in recognizing symptoms of schizophrenia and in stress
management, problem-solving, and social skills. Parents and siblings are included to gain
knowledge and skills to support the adolescents.
The Self-Management Therapy intervention is administered in small multiple-family groups in
12 sessions over 7-1/2 months. The effects of the intervention on the patient and his/her
family are assessed prior to treatment, after 6 sessions, after 12 sessions, and in a
follow-up visit 6 months after completion of sessions.
A child may be eligible for this study if he/she:
Is 15 to 19 years old and has been diagnosed with schizophrenia.
To test the effectiveness of a family-centered, community-based, self-management
intervention (Self-Management Therapy) for adolescents with schizophrenia. The primary aim
is to test its effectiveness in improving the adolescents' level of functioning in role
performance, thinking/cognitive processing, behavior towards others, mood, and use of
substances. The second aim is to assess the impact of the intervention on family
functioning. The third aim is to describe the relationships among the process variables of
Nakagawa-Kogan's self-management nursing model, Kanfer's self-regulation theory, and
Liberman's theory of stress and vulnerability provide the theoretical basis for the
self-management intervention developed specifically for a population with deficits in
cognitive processing. The intervention involves training in symptom awareness, stress
management skills, problem-solving, and social skills. Parents and siblings are included to
gain knowledge and skills to support the adolescents.
The adolescent's level of functioning is assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional
Assessment Scale, the Birchwood Early Signs & Symptoms Scale for schizophrenia, and the
DISA. Family Functioning is assessed by computing a Composite Family Functioning Index
using weighted scores from the FACES II, Family Apgar, Family Empowerment, and Family Social
Support scales. One parent is designated by the family to be the family respondent on the
scales. The adolescents are referred to the study by mental health professionals. The
intervention is administered in small multiple-family groups in 12 sessions over 7-1/2
months. Data are collected at 4 points in time: at baseline, after 6 intensive sessions,
after 6 monthly reinforcement sessions, and 6 months post-intervention. ANCOVA is used to
test the study hypotheses. Multivariate relationships are examined among the process
variables of the intervention.
Patients must have:
Schizophrenia as diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria when screened by a mental health
professional using the K-SADS and the DISA.